Study Guide: Challenging Conditions

When you are driving at night or at any time when you cannot see clearly 150 meters (500 feet) in front of you, you must turn your headlights on. Daytime running lights are not bright enough to be used at night. They are too dim and the tail-lights and instrument panel lights will not be on.

If you are driving at night, or you can’t see 150 feet in front of you, you have to turn on your headlights. Daytime lights aren’t strong enough, and you won’t be able to see your dash.

Always use your low beam lights if there is oncoming traffic, even if there is a barrier or divide between lanes

• Make sure your headlights are not aimed so they are bothering the other people on the road
• Make sure to wipe off your headlights and keep them clear.
• Don’t look directly at oncoming headlights as they can have a momentary blinding effect.

Drive so that you’ll be able to stop within distance of your headlights.

If glare from the sun makes it difficult to see the road, then reduce speed. It’s a good idea to carry sunglasses when on the road.

In smoke and fog, use low beam headlights, as high beams reflect the light back to you, creating glare. If visibility becomes so poor that it is no longer safe to continue driving, slow down and move your vehicle well off the road to a safe location. Turn on your hazard lights (four-way flashers). Do not attempt to drive until conditions improve. If a safe place to park is not available, ensure that you and your passengers move to a safe location away from the vehicle in case it is hit.

When there is smoke or foggy conditions, do not use your high beam lights as they can have a glaring effect. Instead, use your low beam lights.

Black ice is caused by moisture freezing on the road surface. Often a driver cannot see it. However, if the asphalt looks shiny and black instead of grey-white, be cautious, and reduce your speed without braking.

Black ice is when moisture freezes on the road in a way that makes it clear and blend in with the asphalt. A good tip is to look for shiny asphalt, because that may be black ice. Often, however, it is impossible to tell if there is black ice.

Be careful going through shaded areas, as they can retain ice after ice elsewhere has melted.

Bridges also tend to get slippery and have black ice easier than patches. Try to use extra caution on bridges because of this.

When it is raining, use low beam headlights, as high beams reflect the light back to you, creating glare. Your vehicle can also be sprayed with water and mud, interfering with your view through the windshield and windows. Be careful not to splash other vehicles and pedestrians.

Use low beam lights when raining, because, just as with fog, the rain reflects light back and causes glare. There can also be mud on your headlights and windshield reducing visibility. Also don’t splash pedestrians and other vehicles on the road.

On wet roads, your tires may lose contact with the road surface. This is called hydroplaning. The loss of contact between the road surface and your tires can cause you to lose control of your vehicle.

When it’s been raining, sometimes your tires lose touch with the road. This is hydroplaning This might cause you to lose control of your car.

Much like skidding, if this happens don’t brake, just lightly release pressure from the gas and aim the front of your car where you want to go.

During the winter you can experience poor weather conditions that can make driving more dangerous. Winter conditions include freezing rain, very low temperatures, blowing snow, high wind chill, blizzards and heavy snowfalls.

During winter months, the roads can get pretty dangerous because of snow and ice.
Maintain your vehicle. Have it serviced before winter arrives. Be sure that your vehicle’s battery, tires, exhaust system, windshield wipers and heating system are in good working condition.

Make sure you are prepared for winter driving by having your car looked at before winter. Things to look for include the battery, exhaust system, wipers, tires and heating.

Intersection areas may become icy more quickly because of vehicle exhaust, engine heat, and vehicles spinning their wheels or skidding. Allow more time and

Intersections may be icier than elsewhere because of cars compacting the ice. Make sure to leave time for this, as well as giving larger stopping distances.

When the temperature rises to the point where the snow begins to melt, roads can become very slippery. When the frost begins to come out of the ground, a thin layer of water is formed on the road surface.

If there temperatures rises and the snow starts to melt, the roads can get very slippery. So be careful in those situations.

Ensure your vehicle’s windows and windshield are not obstructed by snow, frost, steam, mud, or anything else that may make driving the vehicle dangerous.

Make sure to clear off any snow on your car before hitting the road.

If you find yourself stranded off the highway and your vehicle is in a safe place, it is usually safer to stay with your vehicle. Run the engine just enough to stay warm. Keep the vehicle ventilated while the engine is running. Open a window a small amount to assist air circulation to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide can get into your vehicle from a leaky exhaust system. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that is colourless, odourless, tasteless and, therefore, very dangerous. Be sure your exhaust system is checked whenever you take your vehicle in for servicing.

If you are stranded, it is usually best to stay in the vehicle and stay warm. Run the engine at a low level if you can. Open the window a small amount to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.

Bring stuff to keep you warm, road salt, a shovel, a heat source, ice scraper, and tire chains with you on the road in winter time.


To make it less probable you’ll hit an animal:

• Go slowly and look well ahead to avoid animals
• Look at the sides of the road for animals
• Dusk and dawn the worst time for animals, they tend to be out and about more in this time.
• Look for spots of light on the road, this could be the animals eyes reflecting headlights
• Some animals move in groups, look for more if you see one

If an animal pops out in front of you, brake hard and swerve out of the way and out of the way of oncoming traffic.

If you are the first person at the scene of a collision, stop away from the collision in a safe location. Offer assistance if possible, and protect the scene with flashing hazard lights and warning triangles so that other vehicles do not become involved. If it is necessary to notify the police or emergency medical services, be as accurate as you can, especially about the condition of any injured people and the location of the collision.

If you’re the first one on the scene of a crash, find a safe place to stop and offer assistance if you can. Use your hazards so more drivers will be aware of the crash. Try to be accurate as possible when informing the police or medical services.

Here’s what to do if you are involved in a crash:

• Get the contact information and insurance information of all drivers involved
• Look for witnesses and record their contact information
• Don’t go into who’s fault it was
• Record all the details you can.
• Get a hold of the insurance company as soon as possible.

If someone is killed, injured, or $2000 the police must be called. If the police are called, all drivers must stay at the scene.

If you damage any traffic control device, a parking meter or any public property, you must report this to the police immediately, even if the damages are less than $2,000.

If you do damage to any public device like a parking meter then you must report it immediately to the police.

You must notify the owner of an unattended vehicle of any damage caused through a collision. If you are unable to locate the owner, you must securely attach your name, address, driver’s licence number, vehicle plate number and phone number and phone number to the damaged vehicle.

If you hit an vehicle with no one in it, then you must locate the owner. If you cannot, then leave a note with your name, vehicle information, insurance information, and contact information on the damaged vehicle.

When driving, incidents may cause the lanes of the roadway to be blocked or narrowed. Some examples of this are traffic collisions, disabled vehicles, spilled cargo, and highway maintenance or construction.

There are times when the roadway is consolidated into less lanes, like collisions or construction.

Flashing lights from emergency

vehicles will warn you of a problem ahead. Reduce speed, carefully change lanes if necessary and be prepared
to stop. Follow directions given by emergency personnel directing traffic. Be aware that the vehicle ahead of you may stop or reduce speed unexpectedly to view the scene.

Look for flashing lights from emergency vehicles so are aware of any coming problem. Slow down, change lanes or stop if necessary. Make sure you are aware of what the vehicles in front of you are doing.

One of the most serious problems associated with these types of incidents is the risk of response personnel or equipment being struck by passing vehicles. Services that typically respond to highway incidents include:

• Law enforcement
• Ambulance
• Fire
• Towing

Motorists must reduce speed to 60 km/h or the posted speed, whichever is lower, when passing emergency vehicles or tow trucks that are stopped with their lights flashing. This law applies to the lane(s) immediately next to the stopped vehicles. The fine for speeding in these areas is doubled.

The highest risk in these types of situations is to workers or emergency responders being hit with oncoming vehicles. Reduce your speed to 60 km/hr. Speeding fines are doubled in these areas. Still be watchful and cautious even if you are not required to slow down in your lane.

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