Study Guide: Responsible Driving

Proactive driving is driving with the aim to anticipate possible hazards and take  action to reduce, minimize or avoid danger before it can occur.

Proactive or defensive driving means that you think about, plan for, and anticipate possible dangers on the road in order to lessen and avoid hazards before they occur.

Never assume other drivers are always going to drive carefully or respond correctly at all times. Anticipating what
might happen can help you to avoid collisions caused by the driving errors of others. This chapter describes the skills and techniques you can use to drive proactively.

Always assume other drivers will make mistakes and not drive perfectly or carefully. Think about what a bad driver might do and prepare for that scenario. The follow paragraphs will help you do that.

Most of your attention should be given to looking forward and scanning for hazards that are developing ahead of you. When you are driving in an urban area, look at least 12 to 15 seconds ahead of your vehicle. This is about one to one and a half blocks. When you are driving in rural areas, look at least 20 to 25 seconds ahead of your vehicle. This is your visual lead time, which provides you with time to respond to hazards ahead of you.

Give most of your time and attention to hazards developing ahead of you. If you’re in a city or well populated area, look around 15 seconds ahead of your car. That comes out to about a block and a half. Give yourself 25ish seconds in less populated, rural areas.

Check behind you by glancing in your rear view mirrors every eight to 12 seconds (about every block in an urban
area). Glance in your rear view mirrors when you anticipate slowing or stopping. Be aware of vehicles on both sides and in your blind spots. Do not forget to glance at your speedometer to check your speed.

You should be checking your rear-view mirrors every 10 seconds or so, looking for hazards or problematic drivers behind you. Check your blind-spots often as well. And always remember to check how fast you’re going.

Proactive driving involves a continuous process of watching your surroundings and thinking about whether hazards are developing, and then taking action to reduce risks. There are two types of hazards that should be recognized. These are fixed (those that do not change) and variable (those that change).

Always be on the look out for hazards. If you see one developing, you’ll have to take action. Here are two types of hazards (fixed and variable)

Fixed hazards are things that are always there and just part of the road way:

• Restricted vision areas such as curves, hills and hidden driveways
• Intersections
• Merging roadways

Variable hazards change through the day, including:

• Children playing or people crossing the street
• Cars turning left
• Roads with different weather conditions like ice
• Green lights that are about to turn yellow
• Emergency vehicles

Be prepared to take action to avoid a problem as the situation changes. Expect the unexpected and always plan an
escape route.

Again always prepare for the worst and give yourself an out in case the worst happens.

Space Cushion

Leave enough space between yourself and the vehicle ahead, behind and to either side to stop safely or steer around a possible hazard. If someone is following too closely, and if it is safe, reduce your speed just enough to encourage them to pass. If the person does not pass, create a wider space cushion between you and the vehicle ahead.

Unfortunately this is not a cushion in space. Rather it is giving other vehicles enough space behind you, in front of you, and to the sides of you. Don’t tailgate. If another vehicle is tailgating, it’s best to let them pass you if possible.

Give yourself enough room when stopped at a light to be able to change lanes without going in reverse.

Generally it’s good to think of things in advance when on the road. Plan your route before heading out on the road, change lanes well in advance of your turn, stuff like that.

Avoiding Collisions

A general rule about avoiding collisions is just being aware of what’s going on in front of you. If you have to swerve to avoid a collision, try to swerve while staying on your side of the road.

You might also want to take a defensive driving course from licensed driving schools.

Always remember not to tailgate. To not tailgate, give a 2 second difference between you and the car in front of you. If you have an even larger vehicle like a motor home, 4 seconds is recommended.

If you’re driving, do not use your cell phone. Texting is especially dangerous as it takes away all your attention from the road. If you want to use your cell phone, a hands free headset is necessary.

Driving is a dangerous activity that requires all of your attention. Do not do other things like eat, read, your make-up etc. while driving. You need to pay attention to the road in front of you.

Everyone needs to be safely secured in your vehicle. That means seat-belts for all the adults and older children, and booster seats and child safety seats for young children. The safety seat must be rear facing and properly secured. Please look at your safety seats instruction manual to see how to do that.

Children 22-40 pounds need a front facing safety seat. All newer cars should be equipped to properly secure your safety seat. Please follow instructions of the safety seat otherwise.

40 pounds or heavier children need a booster seat. This is a small seat to give the child a boost in their chair.

How do you gain save fuel on the road?

When buying a vehicle, consider fuel-efficient models. Generally, the smaller the engine, the less fuel it will use. When shopping for a new vehicle, look for its EnerGuide label. This identifies the vehicle fuel usage in terms of liters used for each 100 kilometers driven (liters/100 km), and estimated annual fuel cost. First off, try to buy a fuel-efficient vehicle. Look for a vehicles EnerGuide label. This will tell you how much fuel usage the car has per 100 kilometers.

Travelling at higher speeds increases fuel use. Every 10 km/hour above 90 km/
hour burns about 10 per cent more fuel.

Driving fast increases the amount of fuel you use.

Avoid quick acceleration. It is safer and more fuel-efficient to gradually increase your speed. As much as
possible, maintain a steady speed. Rapid acceleration and changes in speed can increase fuel consumption by as much as 40 per cent. Cruise control can help maintain a fuel efficient steady speed on the highway.

Try building your speed at a more steady pace. Quickly accelerating wastes fuel quickly, and can cause a 40 percent increase in fuel usage. Cruise control can help you use fuel efficiently.

Idling wastes fuel. Ten seconds of idling can consume more fuel than turning off your engine and re-starting it. If you are parking for more than 10 seconds, turn off your engine. For every 10 minutes of idling, the average vehicle uses about one-third of a liter of fuel. A vehicle with a larger engine can use up to one-half of a liter.

Try not to idle. If you have to stop and it’s not too cold, turn off your engine.

Try using a block heater to heat your engine oils for quicker starting in the winter. This can save 10 percent of your fuel.

Make sure you maintain your vehicle, as you can lose a lot of fuel efficiency to a poorly tuned engine, clogged air filters, and under-inflated tires.

Fueling safety tips!

• Don’t smoke while fueling up. It’s dangerous and illegal because it may cause an explosion.
• Believe it or not, cell phone lights may also give off enough of a spark to light gasoline vapors and cause a fire or explosion.
• Turn off your engine.
• Turn off your pilot lights if you have an RV.
• Tell the attendant about a fuel spill.
• Don’t overfill your tank because it can cause spills.
• Here are some good laws to know about:
• Don’t tow people (like for skiing or sledding) with your vehicle.
• Riding in a trailer being towed is illegal.
• If you’re under 14 you can’t operate a tractor or similar vehicle on the highway.
• If your rear-view mirror is blocked then you must add one to the sides of your vehicle.
• You can’t operate a vehicle that disturbs residents in residential areas between 10pm and 7am.
• You can’t allow people to ride in your truck bed. That’s illegal.

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